The association of Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) gene polymorphisms with the coronary artery disease

Sana Ashiq, Kanwal Ashiq, Muhammad Farooq Sabar

Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) are the major reason for death in today’s world. Among these non-communicable diseases, the prevalence of Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) ranked highest. Worldwide among these CVDs Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is the most common cause of mortality and morbidity. It is a multifactorial disorder and is influenced by many genes to environment and gene to gene interactions. The lack of physical activity, unhealthy diet routine, stress and smoking are the most common lifestyle-related risk factors. The family history, ethnicity and genetic polymorphisms including the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes also increase the susceptibility to the CAD. One of the most important polymorphisms is in the gene paraoxonase 1 (PON1). Single nucleotide polymorphism in this gene can alter its hydrolytic activity as the mutant allele carriers are more susceptible to CAD as the wild allele type is more effective in inhibiting the oxidation of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDLC) as compared to the mutant isoform. Thus, the purpose of this review is to summarize the association between the polymorphisms in the PON1 gene and coronary artery disease. Moreover, we also conclude that the several in-silico tools and pharmacogenomics approaches can play a potential role in the treatment of coronary artery diseases.