Tyrosine kinase inhibitors in differentiated thyroid arcinoma: a review of the clinical evidence

Hendrieke C Hoftijzer, Ellen Kapiteijn2, Tatiana, Schneider, Guido C Hovens, Hans Morreau, Hans Gelderblom, Johannes WA Smit

Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is a highly prevalent endocrine malignancy. The majority of DTCs are slowly progressive and, when identified at an early stage, frequently cured with adequate surgical management and radioactive iodine-131 ablation therapy. Metastatic DTC that has become inoperable or refractory to radioactive iodine-131, however, is associated with a poor survival. Results of conventional treatment modalities have been disappointing and, therefore, new therapies are needed. As a result of the increasing knowledge of the biologic basis for thyroid cancer, therapeutic agents that target involved biologic abnormalities have been identified. Multiple clinical trials have been initiated and performed in the past years. In this article conventional and new treatment modalities in differentiated advanced thyroid cancer are described, with the focus on kinase inhibitors.